Sex Hormones and Wound Healing
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Androgens are neutral lipid cholesterols synthesized mainly in the male testes and in small amounts in the ovaries and adrenal glands in women. During androgen biosynthesis, the inactive adrenal precursors dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulphate are converted via a series of steps to androstenedione, testosterone, and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. In human skin, androgens exert their effects via androgen receptors, which are localized to epidermal keratinocytes, apocrine and eccrine sweat glands, hair follicles, sebaceous gland sebocytes, dermal papilla cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. Androgens stimulate hair growth and influence sebum production and secretion as well as sebaceous and apocrine gland size, number, and function.40 They are also implicated in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, and acne.
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