Effect of Glycolic Extract of Dillenia indica L. Combined With Microcurrent Stimulation on Experimental Lesions in Wistar Rats
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Abstract: This study evaluated the wound healing activity of a glycolic extract of Dillenia indica (GED) prepared from the mature fruits of the plant applied alone or in combination with microcurrent stimulation to skin wounds surgically induced on the back of Wistar rats. Methods. The animals were randomly divided into six groups: (A) negative control group; (B) group receiving microcurrent application (MC; [10 mA/2 mins]); (C) group treated with GED; (D) group treated with an emulsion containing GED; (E) group treated with GED and MC, and (F) group treated with the emulsion containing GED and MC. Tissue samples were obtained 2, 6, and 10 days after injury and underwent structural and morphometric analysis. Results. There were observed differences in wound healing among the various treatments when compared to the control group. The combination of microcurrent plus extract or microcurrent plus emulsion containing GED was advantageous in all of the studied parameters (P < 0.05) when compared to the other groups with positive effects seen regarding newly formed tissue, number of fibroblasts, and number of newly formed blood vessels. The morphometric data confirmed the structural findings. Conclusion. Microcurrent application alone or combined with GED exerted significant effects on wound healing in this experimental model. This was probably due to the efficacy of microcurrent application since the extract alone did not significantly accelerate the healing process.D indica fruit extract most likely participates in the wound healing process as a result of its anti-inflammatory properties.
Dillenia indica L. (family Dilleniaceae) originated in tropical Asia and has acclimated in Brazil for more than a century. The plant has a thick trunk and a fissured bark surface. The branches have leaves that are concentrated on the terminal region. The flowers are large and white in color and bloom between December and April. The fruits that appear between April and August are large, fleshy, and greenish-yellow in color and contain small, flattened seeds surrounded by a gelatinous substance.1–4
D indica is used as an antipyretic and cardiotonic drug and for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and anti-inflammatory processes.5–8 Munit et al9 identified the presence of triterpenes and flavonoids in a phytochemical study of the crude extract of D indica leaves. Abdille et al2 observed that the extract of D indica fruit contains significant amounts of phenolic compounds with expressive antioxidant activity. Flavonoids, tannins, and other phenolic substances are constituents of plants with antioxidant activity, mainly by acting as radical scavengers of oxygen. The presence of flavonoids in phytotherapeutic agents has been shown to favor the wound healing process in experimental models.10,11
Wound healing is a complex biological process that occurs in response to tissue damage due to trauma or surgical procedures. The wound healing process can be divided into three phases: inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling. Technological advances facilitated the emergence of a wide variety of wound healing treatments.