Effect of Glycolic Extract of Dillenia indica L. Combined With Microcurrent Stimulation on Experimental Lesions in Wistar Rats
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No significant difference in the repair of the lining epithelium was observed during application of different treatments (Figures 1, 2).
In the group treated with the emulsion containing GED (group D), the tissue repair area and total number of cells on days 6 and 10 after injury were similar to those of the control group. On day 10, the epidermis was completely repaired (Figures 3, 4). A significant increase in tissue repair area and the total number of cells was observed on days 6 and 10 in the group simultaneously receiving MC and the emulsion containing GEC (group F) when compared to group D. However, the collagen fibers of the dermis were poorly compacted.
A significantly larger number of newly formed vessels per tissue area (103 µm2) were observed in groups B, E, and F (Figure 5). Epithelial thickness in the tissue repair area did not differ among groups when compared to control (Figure 6).
Phytochemical analysis of the glycolic extract of D indica fruits identified the presence of flavonoids, among other components. These compounds and their derivatives are known to increase vascularization and to delay the process of cell necrosis due to their anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antioxidant properties.31,32 Studies have shown that most of the antioxidant activity of plant extracts is the result of compounds, such as flavonoids, tannins, isoflavones, flavones, anthocyanins, catechin, and other phenolic compounds.33,34 Flavonoids are especially important in the tissue repair process because of their astringent and antimicrobiological properties.6,35 The same properties can be attributed to tannins, which were identified in the present study in the glycolic extract of D indica . According to Jorge Neto et al36 and Bedi and Shenefelt,37 tannins precipitate proteins in damaged tissues forming a protective lining that favors repair and reduces wound permeability and exudation. Suntar et al38 reported that an aqueous extract of Colutea cilicica (Boiss. & Bal. fruit) was effective during the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the wound healing process in rats. The authors identified flavonoids in the C cilicica extract and suggested that these substances participate in the healing process together with other phytochemical components of the plant.
In the present study, although flavonoids were identified in the D indica extract, no significant effects on the acceleration of tissue repair were observed when the extract or the emulsion containing the extract was applied alone to skin wounds induced on the back of rats. Although the efficacy of flavonoids in the acceleration of the tissue repair process has been reported by different investigators,31,32 the present results indicate that the presence of these compounds in the D indica extract did not have this effect on the healing process.
Analysis of the glycolic extract of D indica fruit did not reveal the presence of alkaloids.