Background. Neuropathic foot ulcers are common and difficult to treat. Calcium sulfate (CAS) has been used for antibiotic delivery in the treatment of osteomyelitis with success. Recent case series suggest success in treating osteomyelitis of the foot with CAS in a mean time to healing of 4 months; however, few studies with a control group for comparison exist. Objective. This study aims to determine if antibiotic-impregnated CAS beads improved the healing of neuropathic foot ulcers with proven osteomyelitis undergoing surgical debridement. Materials and Methods. A consecutive retrospective cohort study of 50 patients undergoing surgical debridement of neuropathic foot ulcers for osteomyelitis from December 2015 to May 2016 was performed. Exclusion criteria consisted of amputations and microbiology findings inconsistent with osteomyelitis. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the surgical debridement (SD) group was treated with SD alone and the other (CAS) was treated with debridement and implantation of vancomycin- and gentamicin-impregnated CAS beads. Results. After exclusion criteria, 42 patients were included: 13 in the SD group and 29 in the CAS group. In the SD group, the mean time to healing was 5.8 months (range, 2–9 months), and in the CAS group, it was 5.5 months (range, 2–13 months). There was no significant difference in ulcer healing (P = .81), time to healing (P = .79), reoperation rate (P = .51), length of stay (P = .74), or mortality (P = .13) between the 2 groups. Conclusions. Ulcer healing in patients treated with antibiotic-impregnated CAS beads did not show statistical significance. Healing rates in both groups were similar to those in recent literature. Surgical debridement alone may be as effective as supplementation with local antibiotics in a bioabsorbable carrier.