Background. Abdominal adhesions are pathological connections in peritoneal surfaces that are created after abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Rosa damascena extract on adhesions, considering the antioxidant properties of rose. Methods. Thirty healthy rats were divided into 3 groups: rats treated by 1% (A) and 5% (B) of R. damascena extract and the control group (C). After administering anesthesia, the abdominal wall was opened and 3 shallow incisions (2 cm) were made on the right wall, and a 2 × 2 piece of peritoneal surface was removed on the left side of the abdominal wall. Then 3 mL of 1% (A) and 5% (B) R. damascena extract was administered into the abdominal cavity. The control group (C) received 3 mL of distilled water. The abdominal cavity was sutured, and a second laparotomy was carried out 14 days later to the created adhesions according to the Canbaz scale, and a histopathologic examination was also performed. All data was analyzed by SPSS volume 16 (Chicago, IL); P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The amount of adhesion in group A was significantly lower than that of group C, 1.4 ± 1.265 versus 3 ± 0.816, (P = 0.007). The histological investigation also showed significant differences in the severity of fibrosis (P = 0.029) and inflammation (P = 0.009) between groups A and C; all rats in group B (5%) were found dead. Conclusion. This study indicated the use of R. damascena at a 1% level resulted in a remarkable decrease of intra-abdominal adhesions after laparotomy in rats. Further studies are necessary on this extract and its derivatives for treatment of such diseases in the human model.